- Language: Old Japanese
- Alternate names: 中古日本語, chūko nihongo
- Language code:
- Language family: Japonic
- Number of speakers: Extinct
- Script: Hiragana, Katakana, and Han
Late Old Japanese is a stage of the Japanese language used between 794 and 1185, a time known as the Heian Period. It is the successor to Old Japanese. Late Old Japanese further evolved to Middle Japanese.
The 9 verbal conjugations in Old Japanese
Lower Monograde (下一段) was introduced in Late Old Japanese
|Upper Bigrade (上二段)||-i||-i||-u||-uru||-ure||-i(yo)|
|Lower Monograde (下一段)||-e||-e||-eru||-eru||-ere||-e(yo)|
|Lower Bigrade (下二段)||-e||-e||-u||-uru||-ure||-e(yo)|
Consonant / vowel stem
Verbs having a base that ends in a consonant are known as consonant-stem. These are exhibited by the following conjugation classes: Quadrigrade, Upper Bigrade, Lower Monograde, Lower Bigrade, S-irregular, R-irregular, K-irregular, and N-irregular.
Verbs having a base that ends in a vowel are known as vowel-stem. These are exhibited by the following conjugation classes: Upper Monograde.
There are several verbs with irregular conjugations.
- K-irregular: k- "come"
- S-irregular: s- "do"
- N-irregular: sin- "die", in- "go, die"
- R-irregular: ar- "be, exist", wor- "be, exist"
The conjugation class for each is named after the final stem consonant.