Conjugate Verbs


  • Language: Palenquero
  • Alternate names: PALENQUE, LENGUA
  • Language code: pln
  • Language family: Creole, Spanish Based
  • Number of speakers: 2500
  • Script:


Entirely unintelligible to Spanish speakers. Linguistic influences from Kongo in Democratic Republic of Congo (I. Hancock 1987). Most members of the ethnic group speak Spanish as mother tongue, but some old people have limited proficiency in Spanish. 10% of those under 25 speak it (1998 Armin Schwegler) . Most speakers are older. Everyone values Palenquero. People are culturally distinct from nearby Spanish speakers. Investigation needed: bilingual proficiency in Spanish, attitudes toward Spanish. Grammar.