• Language: |Xam
  • Alternate names: |Kamka!e, |Kham-Ka-!k’e, |Xam-Ka-!k’e
  • Language code: xam
  • Language family: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Nama
  • Number of speakers: Extinct
  • Script: Latin script


|Xam is a southern Khoisan language which was spoken in parts of the southwest region of South Africa until its extinction some time in the early part of the 20th century.

The |Xam Verb

Verbs do not agree with arguments. Moods and tenses are formed by placing one or more verbal particles or auxiliaries before the verb. Occasionally also the verb takes an ending, generally when it can be translated as a participle.

Tense, Mood, Aspect

sinpast/perfect/pluperfect/subjunctive perfect
kancontinuous action

The hartebeest wanted me to take the thong away from his eye.


child is crying

MantisCONTdreaming-(pres. participle)child

the Mantis was dreaming about the child.


Negation: 'not' is expressed by )au or )auki before the main verb.

Compound Verbs

Two or three verbs can be strung together in a sentence, sometimes joined by one of the particles ki, ko, kau, ti, to, tau, si or by /ki `to take', sometimes without any connection.

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