Etruscan Glossary

?= uncertain attribution
*= the asterisk denotes a form not appearing in epigraphs and reconstructed from the quotations of Greek and Latin authors
A < B= A derives from B
A > B= B derives from A
Gk.= Greek - vox graeca
IE.= Indo-European - vox indo-europaea
Lat.= Latin - vox latina
of s.m= of same meaning - idem name of tribe, gentilic name - nomen gentis
n.loc.= name of locality, place name- nomen loci
n.peop= name of people - nomen populi
n.pers.= name of person - nomen personae
n.pers.f.= female personal name - nomen personae femineum
n.pers.m.= male personal name - nomen personae masculinum
n.vess.= name of a type of vessel - nomen vasorum escariorum


The conventions for transliterating the Etruscan script, adopted on the occasion of the Etruscology congress which took place in Leiden in 1931, foresee the use of 3 Greek letters and 1 latin letter with a diacritic sign. To overcome the limitations of the computer font used, we employed the following symbols:


acale = June
acas = to make, to present, to offer
acathur = boy
acazr = offers
avil = year
avilxva- = annual, yearly
athre = atrium, hall
ais, eis = god (pl. aisar, eisar = gods, ? cfr. Old Norse Aesir of s.m.)
aisna, eisna = divine, divine service
al- = to give, donate, offer
alpan, alpnu = offer, present
alphaze = offer
am- = to be
ampile = May
an (anc, ananc, ancu) = relative pronouns
*antha = eagle; Boreas (north wind)
apa = father (cfr. Gk. appa of s.m., possibly a Semitic loan-word)
apcar = abacus
ar- = ?to do, ?to make
*arac = hawk
*arim = monkey, ape
ars- = ? to turn away, drive away, remove
aska = container made of leather (< Gk. askós)
ati = mother
ati nacna = ? grandmother


-c = and (enclitic, cfr. Lat. -que)
ca, eca = this
camthi = name of magistracy
cape, capi = (n.vess.) a type of vase; a container; ? cart (cfr. Lat. capere "to contain")
*capr- = April
*capu = hawk
car-, cer- = to build, make
cautha, catha = sun, Sun-god
cealx, cialx = thirty
cezp = seven (? eight)
cezpalx = seventy (? eighty)
*cezpre = October
cela = cell (cf. Lat. cella of s.m.)
celi = September
celu = sacerdotal title
cep-, cepen = sacerdotal title
cer-, car- = to build, make
ces- = to lay, to place, to be placed
cexa = rite (right, law)
cexase = name of magistracy
cver, cvil = present, offer
ci = three
cialx, cealx = thirty
ciz = three times, thrice
clan = son
cleva = offer
cletram = offer's tray, stretcher, litter
culixna, culcna = (n.vess.) a type of vase, cup


eca, ca = this
ein = no, not (cfr. the corresponding Western Semitic forms)
eis, ais = god (pl. eisar, aisar = gods, ?cfr. Old Norse Aesir of s.m.)
eisna, aisna = divine, divine service eitva, etva = ? big, large
elu-, ilu- = verb used for offerings or prayers
-em = from
epl = ? in, to, up to
esal, zal = two (?cfr. German Zahl "number" < IE. *del(e) "to split")
eta, ta = this (?cfr. the corresponding IE forms)
etera, eteri = servant (< Gk. etaîros, etaíra), ? client, stranger, foreigner (?Gk. éteros)
eterau (eterav) = related to strangers
etva, ta = this (?cfr. the corresponding IE forms)
etnam = and, also (cfr. Lat. etiam)
etr- (ethr-) = verb used in connection with sacred actions


vacal, vacil, vacl = ? libation
*velitna, velicitna = March
vers-, verse = fire
vertun = (n.vess.) a kind of vase
vinum = wine (international loanword, Wanderwort)


zavena = drinking vase, vessel
zathrum = twenty
zal (esal-) = two (?cfr. German Zahl "number" which is said to originate from IE. *del(e) "to split")
zatlath = ? companion
zeri = ? rite, juridical act
ziva- = ? dead, deceased ones
zil- = to practise the "zil"-magistracy
zil, zilac, zilath, zilx = name of a magistracy (? Lat. praetor)
zix (zic-) = to write, to paint; ? book
zixu = scribe (Lat. scriptor)
zusle, zusleva = offer, victim, animal


hamphe- = ? May
hante = before (cfr. Lat. ante)
hec-, hex- = ? to put, to add
*hermi = August
hinthial = soul, shade
hinthu = ? infernal, pertaining to the Infers
hiuls = owl
huth = six (? four)
hupni, hupnina = sepulchral environment
hus- = boy, son
husina (husl) = ? young person


tham- = ? to lay, to found
*thamna, tamna = horse
thandsa, tanasa = actor
thap- = ? to dedicate, to consecrate
thapna (thafna) = name of a vase (chalice, drinking cup)
thaur-, thaura = sepulchre, tomb
thaurx = sepulchral, funerary
*thevru = bull (Semitic loanword, cfr. Lat. taurus, Gk. taûros against Aramaic thowrâ "ox", Arabic tawra "bull", etc.)
thez- = to make an offer, a sacrifice
thesan = morning, day
thina = name of a vase (earthen pot, jar, urn)
thruna, truna = power, rule, government
thu = one, single
thui = here
thunz = once
thuva = brother


ic, ix = like, as, and
ica, ca = this
Ilithiia = the goddess Ilithya (Gk. Eileithyia)
ilu-, elu- = verb used for offerings or prayers
ilucve = ? Lat. kalendae
in, inc = demonstrative and relative pronoun
ipa = relative pronoun
ita, ta = this
itu- = ? to divide


-k, -c = and (enclitic, cf. Lat. -que)
kape, kapi = cape, capi (n.vess.) a type of vase, ? cart
karthasie = (n.peop.) Carthaginian


lantneteri = ? freedman, client
lautun, lavtn = family, people, nation (=Lat. gens), ?cfr. IE. *leudho- whence Old English lêode and German Leute "people"
lautni, lavtni = familiar, gentilitial
lauc-, laux(u)me, luxum = an official title (Lat. rex, Lucumon)
lauxumna- = royal palace
lein- = ? to die
leu = lion (Lat. leo)
lextum(usa) = name of a vase (< Gk. lekythos)
lucair- = to reign, to rule
lup- = to die (?cfr. Finnish loppua "to end; to terminate; to come to an end" of unknown origin)
lupu = dead, deceased


-m = (copulative enclitic) ? and
mac = five
macstrev = name of magistracy (Lat. magister)
mal- = ? to give, dedicate
malena = mirror
masculinena, malstria = ? mirror
man, mani = > Lat. Manes, dead people
maru, marunu = name of magistracy (Lat. maro)
masan = name of a month
mata = (n.vess.) name of a vase
matam, matan = ? over, in front of
max = five
methlum = ? nation (institutional term)
mex = nation (Lat. populus)
mi = I
mini = me (cfr. the Latin enclitic form -mini = mihi "to me")
muvalx = fifty
mul- = to offer, to make a vow
mulx = beautiful, nice
m(u)lax, mlac = votive offering
mulu = gift, present
mun-, muni-, (munth) = hypogeal place, tomb
mur- = ? to settle, stay, remain
murs = urn, sarcophagus
mutana, mutna = sarcophagus (cfr. ancient Egyptian mwt "to die"; Aramaic mut "to die", mot "death"; Ugaritic mt "to die"; Accadic mâtu and Arabic mâta"he died", etc.)
*mutu = thyme


nac = how, why
naplan = name of a vase for wine
naper = measure of length
nethshrac = haruspex
netshvis = haruspex
nes- = dead, defunct
nesna = ? belonging to the dead
nethshvis = haruspex
nefish, nefts = nephew, grandson
nuna = ? offerings
nurph- = ? nine
nurphzi = ? nine times


papa = grandfather, ancestor, forefather
papals = ? belonging to the grandfather (? to the grandson)
par, parxis = ?attribute of a magistracy; enjoying parity of civil rights (cfr. with the Lat. root of par-ity)
parla = name of a vase
patna = name of a vase (Lat. patena)
penthuna, penthna = cippus, stone
prumts = great grandson
pruxum = pitcher, ewer (Gk. prókhûs, Lat. broccus, brocca)
pui, puia = wife
pulumxva = ? stars
purth, purthne = name of magistracy (? Lat. dictator)
put-, puth- = ? well, fountain (cfr. Latin puteum of s.m.)


qutun, qutum = (n.vess.) ewer, pitcher, cfr. Greek kôthônof s.m. (the Gk word was borrowed by some Arabic dialects of northern Africa).


rashna = Etruscan
ril = in the age of
ruva = brother

S, Sh

sha = four (? six)
sac- = ? to consecrate (cfr. IE. *sak- "to consecrate", Lat. sacer "holy")
sacni, sacniu = ? sanctuary, ? holy place, ? consecrated
san- = ? ancestor
santi = sacerdotal title (? funerary title)
sath, shat = ? to put, to be put
shar = ? ten
shealx = forty (? sixty)
sec, sex = daughter
semph- = ? eight, ? seven
semphalx = ? eighty, ? seventy
sval = living, alive
sval- = to live
snenath = maid-servant, mate (f.)
spanti = (n.vess.) ? vase, ? dish
spet = ? to drink
spur- = city
spurana, spureni = civic (? citizen)
spuriaze = ? public
shran, shren = ? figure
shrencve = ? decorated, adorned
suth-, sut- = ? to stay, to place
shuthi = tomb, site
shuthina = sepulchral
suplu = Gk. aul�tes (whistler, piper), cfr. Lat. sufflare "to blow"


ta = this
tamera = name of magistracy
*tamna, thamna = horse
tanasa, thanasa = actor
tev- = ? to show, ? to see
tevarath = watcher, ? arbiter
ten- to practise a public office
tesh-, tesham- = to cure
tesinth = curator
tv = to see, to show
tin- = day (Tin is also the name of Jupiter); some scholar relate this word to the I-E root *di(n) "light"
tiu, tiv-, tivr = moon, month
tmia = holy place, holy building
-tnam = and, also (enclitic, see etnam)
*traneus (Latinized form) = July
trin = to invoke, ? beseech, ? supplicate
*truna, *thruna = power, rule
trut-, truth- = verb used in connection with sacred actions
trutnuth, trutnut= oracle, fortune-teller
tuthi (tuti-) = community, state (cfr. IE. *teutâ "people, nation, land")
tuthin, tutin, tudhina- = statal, public
tular, tularu = limits, borders (?? cfr. Gk. Thoúle > Lat. (ultima) Thule, the northernmost land in ancient times)
tupi = stone
tur- = to give, dedicate; (cfr. Lat. do "to give" with a -r extension as in Gk. dôron "gift")
turane = July
turza = offer
turn = given, offered, dedicated
tus = ? loculus, niche


ulpaia, upaia = (n.vess.) name of a vase, cfr. Gk. ólpê
usil = sun
ut-, uth- = verb of giving


phersu = mask, masked actor, cfr. Lat. persona


xulixna, culixna = (n.vess.) cup


favi- = ditch, grave (> Lat. favi[s]sae)
*falatu (fala) = sky
fan- = ? consecrate
fanu = sacred place (> Lat. fanum)
fashe = a type of sacrifice
fasle = name of vase
fler = offer, ? blood sacrifice
flere = deity, god
flerxva = ceremony, sacrifical rite
frontac = fortune teller who profesyzes from thunderbolts (Lat. fulguralis)
furthan = a genius