- Language: Lone
- Created: 2002
- Alternate names:
- Language code:
- Language family: international auxiliary language
A constructed language by Risto Kupsala.
Lone is an isolating language that has a pan-European vocabulary. Thus it combines, among others, words from Romance, Slavic and Germanic languages (in order of importance). Lone (pronounced something like lawnay or loné) is a simple constructed language that is still under construction. Lone's purpose is to be a new kind of Euroclone combining vocabulary from languages all around the Europe. (Considering the special nature of Lone's words it is quite probably that some words must be drawn from languages outside the Europe.) Lone briefly 1. Every word is read as it is written. The accent falls always on the first syllable. 2. The syntax: subject, predicate, object. 3. The nouns appear only in one form. There isn't singular or plural. The amount is defined with numerals or adjectives. 4. Simple qualifiers precede the word that they qualify. Prepositional qualifiers follow it. 5. In combined words the qualifier precedes the main word. 6. Adjectives and adverbs are similar. The comparison is conducted with the help of particles. 7. The verbs are not inflected. Tense (aspect) and modus are formed with the help of particles. 8. The syntax can be altered, if it doesn't affect the meaning of the sentence. Lone step by step 1.a) Every word is read as it is written. Lone's writing is phonetic. In other words every word is read as it is written and every word is written as it is said. Thus knowing the sounds of the letters enables to read and write Lone. The concept is naive but it is also smart and ideal. a a i i r r b b j ? s s c ? k k? t t? d d l l u u e e m m v v f f n n z z g g o o h h p p? Most of the consonants are similar to their common English sounds with the following exceptions: c is pronounced as sh in ship. j is pronounced as s in measure. r is trilled as in Spanish and Russian. Also the French and the German r sounds will do. Using the English r is strongly discouraged. 1.b) The accent falls on the first syllable. 2. The syntax: subject, predicate, object. The main syntax is the same as in English. Note that it doesn't change in question. tora tiger rata rat case chase tora case rata. The tiger chases the rat. rata case tora. The rat chases the tiger. 3. The nouns have united singular and plural form In Lone there is no singular nor plural form of the noun. Instead the number (as well as the quantity) is indicated by other words, such as numerals and adjectives, that precede the qualified noun. tora tiger unu tora a tiger, one tiger mega tora million tigers boku tora a lot of tigers suna sand zero suna no sand at all boku suna a lot of sand 4.a) Simple qualifiers precede the word that they qualify. Adjectives preced the noun that they qualify. joli pretty nove new siti city joli siti pretty city nove siti new city nove joli siti new pretty city Adverbs precede the verb that they qualify. nataca Natasha (a person's name) joli pretty rede talk joli nataca rede. Pretty Natasha talks. nataca joli rede. Natasha talks prettily. joli nataca joli rede. Pretty Natasha talks prettily. 4. b) Prepositional qualifiers follow the word that they qualify. siti city dona lady rusia Russia siti na rusia a Russian city (a city in Russia) dona de rusia a Russian lady (a lady from Russia) 5. In combined words the qualifier precedes the main word. Lone's combined words are ideally similar to those of English. In Lone they are attached together with a middle dot (·). mare sea riba fish mare·riba seafish, fish of the sea 6.a) Adjectives and adverbs are similar. As earlier stated, the adjectives and adverbs precede the word that they qualify. sugo vida a spectacular life dona sugo vida. A lady lives spectacularly. A lady leads a spectacular life. The prepositional qualifiers follow the word that they qualify. note be repo a night without rest, a restless night saca rabota be repo. Sasha works without rest. 7. Verbs are not inflected. Verbs do not indicate tense nor aspect. The tense is indicated by the following particles. ge the past nu the present va the future nataca ge rede. Natasha talked (in the past). nataca nu rede. Natasha talks (at the moment). nataca va rede. Natasha will talk (in the future). © 2002 Risto Kupsala, [email protected]
Language sources: Esperanto, Volapük, Glosa (merely as inspirations, not as sources of plagiarism)
Logic, word isolation, simple syllables (V, VV, CV, CVV).