- Language: Cavite Chabacano
- Alternate names: Chabacano, Chabakano, Zamboangueño
- Language code: dcbkc
- Language family: Indo-European, Classical Indo-European, Italic, Latino-Faliscan, Latinic, Imperial Latin, Romance, Italo-Western Romance, Western Romance, Shifted Western Romance, Southwestern Shifted Romance, West Ibero-Romance, Castilic, South Castilic, Ternate-Zamboanga-Cavite
- Creole language
- Number of speakers: 4000
- Script: Braille script. Latin script, primary usage.
Chavacano or Chabacano [tʃaβaˈkano] is a group of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines. The variety spoken in Zamboanga City, located in the southern Philippine island group of Mindanao, has the highest concentration of speakers. Other currently existing varieties are found in Cavite City and Ternate, located in the Cavite province on the island of Luzon. Chavacano is the only Spanish-based creole in Asia.
The Chavacano Verb
Cavite Chabacano has three overt aspect markers (ta, di, and ya). No combinations of the markers are possible. Ya marks the perfective aspect, ta marks the imperfective aspect, and di marks the contemplated aspect used to express irrealis and future meanings. There are two main forms of the verb, one derived from the Spanish infinitive, such as come ‘eat’ from comer, which combines with the preverbal markers, and the other from an inflected Spanish form for a limited group of verbs, including the modal verbs: debe ‘must’, quiere ‘want’, puede ‘can’, sabe ‘know’, tiene ‘have’, which generally occur without the preverbal markers. Reduplication of verbs has iterative and progressive functions.
- ya: perfective, past time reference
- ta: imperfective, past and present time reference
- di: contemplated, future time reference