• Language: Javindo
  • Alternate names: “Krontjong”, Krõjo
  • Language code: jvd
  • Language family: Indo-European, Classical Indo-European, Germanic, Northwest Germanic, West Germanic, Macro-Dutch, Middle-Modern Dutch, Modern Dutch, Global Dutch
  • Creole language
  • Number of speakers: No known L1 speakers. May be a few L2 speakers and even a very few L1 speakers (Wurm 2007).
  • Vulnerability: Endangered [Read more...]
  • Script:

More information:


    Javindo, also known by the pejorative name Krontjong, was a Dutch-based creole language spoken on Java, Indonesia. The name Javindo is a portmanteau of Java and Indo, the Dutch word for a person of mixed Indonesian and Dutch descent. This contact language developed from communication between Javanese-speaking mothers and Dutch-speaking fathers in Indo families. Its main speakers were Indo-Eurasian people. Its grammar was based on Javanese while the vocabulary was based on Dutch. Dutch lexicon was pronounced in a Javanese manner.

    The Javindo Verb

    In Javindo the rich morphological verb system of Javanese is reduced formally and semantically

    Paradigm of Javindo:

    taq-R-i taq-R-(s)ke
    koq-R-i koq-R-(s)ke
    di-R-(i) di-R-(s)ke
        Als ken-niet, ja Ùx-ken-ken-z, wong so muulek kok sommen-nja.
        if can-not, IM PAS-can=RED-IR, (EM) for (so) difficult those sum-(PL)-dem
        Nak ora isa, ya di-isa-isa-a, na w on g angèl temen kok suwal an-é ekkok m -en-nja. (Javanese)
        Als het niet gaat, stel dan alles in het werk opdat je wel kunt, want die sommen zijn zo moeilijk. (Dutch)
        ‘If it is not possible, try to get them done, for the sums are hard.’ (-nja is a Malay demonstrative, -ém its Javanese equivalent.)