Papia Kristang

Conjugate Verbs


  • Language: Papia Kristang
  • Alternate names: Malaccan Creole Portuguese, Bahasa Geragau, Bahasa Serani, Kristang, Luso-Malay, Malaccan, Malaqueiro, Malaquenho, Malaquense, Malaquês, Malayo-Portuguese, Malaysian Creole Portuguese, Papia Cristao, Papia Kristang, Português de Malaca, Portuguese Patois, Serani
  • Language code: mcm
  • Language family: Indo-European, Classical Indo-European, Italic, Latino-Faliscan, Latinic, Imperial Latin, Romance, Italo-Western Romance, Western Romance, Shifted Western Romance, Southwestern Shifted Romance, West Ibero-Romance, Galician Romance, Macro-Portuguese, Luso-Asian Creole
  • Creole language
  • Number of speakers: 800
  • Vulnerability: Endangered [Read more...]
  • Script:

More information:


    Papia Kristang, or just Kristang, is a creole language spoken by the Kristang, a community of people of mixed Portuguese and Malay ancestry, chiefly in Malacca, Malaysia.

    The Papia Kristang Verb

    Papiá Kristang has two overt markers of aspect (ja ‘perfective’ and ta ‘imperfective’), an overt marker of future tense (lo(gu)), and a zero marker. All the TAM markers are preverbal. For the functional analysis of the markers, it is essential to distinguish three broad lexical aspect classes of verbs: Dynamic verbs (e.g. nadá ‘to swim’), type-1 statives (i.e. which do not occur with ta ‘imperfective’, e.g. gostá ‘to like’) and type-2 statives (i.e. which can occur with ta ‘imperfective’, e.g. lembrá ‘to think’).