Somali

Conjugate Verbs

Facts

  • Language: Somali
  • Alternate names: Af-Maxaad Tiri, Af-Soomaali, Common Somali, Soomaaliga, Standard Somali
  • Language code: som
  • Language family: Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East Cushitic, Lowland East Cushitic, Southern Lowland East Cushitic, Mainstream Lowland East Cushitic, Omo-Tana, Eastern Omo-Tana
  • Number of speakers: 25000000
  • Script: Arabic script, no longer in use. Latin script, used since 1972. Osmanya script, no longer in use.

More information:

    Introduction

    Somali is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. Somali is spoken by more than 25 million people, making it approximately the 10th largest language in Africa and 70th largest in the world. Most Somali speakers live in five states in the Horn of Africa. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet.

    Waterplace in Somaliland
    Waterplace in Somaliland.

    The Somali Verb

    Somali verbs consist of a stem to which suffixes are added. There are:

    Regular Conjugation of Somali Verbs

    Most Somali verbs are conjugated in a completely regular way, by attaching different verb endings to the verb stem to form the tenses. There are, however, a lot of ortographical rules that change either the stem or the ending. The changes are regular anyway.

    Regular verbs are divided in three conjugation classes:

    1. Verbs with stem ending in consonant, e.g., boodaa 'jumps'
    2. Verbs with stem ending in vowel, e.g., fiiriyaa 'looks'
    3. Verbs that end with -t, and that alter stem depending on whether the ending starts with a vowel or consonant. E.g., dhigtaa 'studies'

    Irregular Verbs of Somali

    Somali has six irregular verbs. Unlike the regular verbs, they are partly inflected through prefixes. The two most irregular verbs are yahay 'is' and leeyahay 'has'. The other four are yaallaa 'lies', yaqaannaa 'knows', yimaaddaa 'comes', and yiraahdaa 'says'.

    Verblist

    abuur, adkee, afduub, afur, afuuf, ah, ahay, akhri, aqbal, arag, arkid, asaas, baabi, bakhtii, ballaari, bandhig, banee, bar, barar, baro, bax, beddel, bilow, bixi, burbur, buuxi, caawi, cab, caddey, cadeyso, carar, caymi, ceebey, celceli, celi, ciyaar, ciyaarid, codso, cun, daa, daabici, daadi, daahi, daawo, dabaalan, daci, dadaal, dadhan, dagaal, dalbo, dar, dardar, dareen, dawee, degdeg, dhaaf, dhaawici, dhac, dhal, dhalaal, dhamee, dhamey, dhammaad, dhaq, dhaqaaq, dhaqdaqaaq, dheh, dhib, dhimo, dhiqid, dhis, dhowey, dhuf, difaaci, diid, dil, dili, dilid, diman, dir, diyaari, dood, doon, door, durug, duub, duulid, eeg, faaiidey, fadhi, fadhiiso, fakarid, fariisan, feker, fiiri, fududey, fur, fuul, gaabi, gaadh, gaar, gad, gadh, gadho, gal, ganaax, garaac, garo, geli, giriir, gub, gubid, gudbi, gumeys, guur, habee, hadal, hagaaji, hay, heesid, hel, heshii, hey, hilmaam, horfiiri, horjeed, hormar, hubso, hurdo, iibi, iibso, ilaali, ilkocaddey, iloob, imaad, imaan, iskuday, istaag, isticmaal, ixtiraam, jaq, jar, jari, jawaab, jebi, jees, jeex, jiidid, jiifsan, joog, jooji, kac, kaley, kaxee, kaydi, keen, kontarool, kordhi, kori, laab, leexan, lun, maaray, maax, maaxi, mamnuuci, maqal, maqlid, mar, mari, marin, mashquul, matag, mayr, naso, neefsan, neefso, nool, noolaan, noqo, nuug, ogaan, oggolaad, ogol, ogow, ooyin, orod, qaad, qabo, qabooji, qallaji, qaniin, qari, qarxi, qas, qaybgal, qaybin, qaylo, qeybgal, qiyaas, qodid, qor, qurxi, raac, raadi, rajee, rif, riix, riixi, saar, saaxo, safar, samay, samee, saxiix, shaqey, sheeg, sheegid, shub, shukaansi, sido, sii, siin, soco, socod, soocan, sug, sugto, taabo, taag, taageer, tabarruci, tacaal, tacsi, talin, tari, tarjum, tartami, tibaax, tijaab, tirin, tirtir, tirtirid, tolid, toogan, tuf, tuko, tus, tuuris, ujeed, urin, wac, wadaag, wadahadal, wanaaji, wareeg, wareeji, wargeli, was, waxbar, waxtar, weydii, weyney, xagan, xanaaji, xasuusi, xałi, xir, xirid, xiriir, xukun, yeel, yimaad.

    aa, aallaa, aamiyaa, aamminaa, aammusaa, aansadaa, aasaa, aasaasaa, aasmaa, abbaaraa, abuuraa, abuurmaa, addeecaa, addoomiyaa, addoonsadaa, adeegsadaa, adkaystaa, afduubaa, aflaxaa, afuufaa, agoomeeyaa, akhristaa, amaahdaa, amaahiyaa, ambadaa, ammaanaa, amraa, andacoodaa, ansaxaa, ansixiyaa, aqbalaa, argaggaxaa, arkaa, arkoodaa, arooraa, aroosaa, ashqaraaraa, ashqaraariyaa, ashtakeeyaa, asqoobaa, asteeyaa, asturaa, attr, baadhaa, baahaa, baahiyaa, baajiyaa, baaqbaaqaa, baasaa, babbiyaa, bacrimiyaa, badhaa, badhaadhaa, badhxaa, badiyaa, badsadaa, bajiyaa, bakhtiiyaa, ballaartaa, banneeyaa, baraarugaa, baraarujiyaa, barakeeyaa, bararaa, barariyaa, baratamaa, barbaaraa, barbaariyaa, bartaa, baryaa, basaasaa, baxaa, baxnaaniyaa, baxsadaa, bayliyaa, beddelaa, beddelmaa, beddeshaa, beelaa, beenaa, beeneeyaa, beeniyaa, beeraa, beertaa, belbelaa, biilaa, biiriyaa, bilaabaa, bilaabmaa, biraa, bisleeyaa, bixiyaa, bogsadaa, boobaa, boodeeyaa, booqdaa, boqraa, bukaa, bukoodaa, burushaa, buufiyaa, buuqaa, buuxsadaa, buuxsamaa, caabudaa, caabuqaa, caadaystaa, caafiyaa, caaryaa, caawiyaa, cabbaa, cabbeeyaa, cabbiraa, cabiidsadaa, cabsadaa, cadaadiyaa, caddeeyaa, cadhaadaa, cadhoodaa, cagaariyaa, calaaliyaa, calaleeyaa, calaliyaa, cantuugaa, caraboobaa, cararaa, carbiyaa, carfaa, carfiyaa, caseeyaa, casheeyaa, caweeyaa, cayiliyaa, cayimaa, ceebeeyaa, ceejiyaa, ceeshaa, celiyaa, ceshadaa, cidloodaa, ciqaabaa, ciyaa, ciyaaraa, codeeyaa, colaadiyaa, cunaa, cusbeeyaa, daadiyaa, daafacaa, daajiyaa, daalaa, daaliyaa, daandaamaa, daaqaa, daaraa, daartaa, daataa, daawadaa, daaweeyaa, daayaa, dabaashaa, daboolaa, dabtaa, dacweeyaa, dadaalaa, dahaaraa, dalbaa, dalbadaa, daldalaa, daloolaa, damcaa, damqadaa, daneeyaa, dangiigsadaa, danqadaa, daraa, dardaarmaa, dareemaa, dareeriyaa, daryeelaa, dayaa, dayacaa, dayriyaa, deddejiyaa, degaa, dejiyaa, deynsadaa, dhaafsadaa, dhaansadaa, dhaawacaa, dhaawacmaa, dhabannaaneeyaa, dhadhamaa, dhadhamiyaa, dhadhansadaa, dhafraa, dhajiyaa, dhalaalaa, dhaliilaa, dhaliyaa, dhamaa, dhammaystaa, dhammeeyaa, dhaqaa, dhaqaaleeyaa, dhaqaaqaa, dharbaaxaa, dhasaa, dhawaaqaa, dhawraa, dhaxamoodaa, dheelaa, dheelitiraa, dheelliyaa, dheereeyaa, dhegooleeyaa, dhejiyaa, dhergaa, dhexaadiyaa, dhexeeyaa, dhididiyaa, dhigaa, dhiibtaa, dhiirradaa, dhimaa, dhintaa, dhireeyaa, dhisaa, dhoobaa, dhoofaa, dhoofiyaa, dhowaadaa, dhowraa, dhufaanaa, dhuftaa, dhumaa, dhuraa, dhutiyaa, dhuumaa, dhuusaa, dhuuxaa, dibindaabeeyaa, digaa, diiriyaa, diirriyaa, dilaa, dillaacaa, dillaaciyaa, dilmaa, diraa, diriraa, dirqiyaa, diyaariyaa, diyaarsadaa, doodaa, doonaa, doondoonaa, doontaa, doorbidaa, dooriyaa, doortaa, duceeyaa, duleelaa, duleeliyaa, dumiyaa, duqoobaa, durkaa, duubaa, duubtaa, eedaa, eegtaa, eersadaa, engegaa, engejiyaa, eryaa, eryadaa, faafaa, faagaa, faahfaahiyaa, faalleeyaa, faanaa, faaniyaa, faarujiyaa, faashaa, faayaa, fadeexeeyaa, fadhiistaa, fadhiyaa, fadlan, fahmaa, falaa, falaadaa, falanqeeyaa, faraa, farbartaa, fareeyaa, fariisiyaa, farxaa, farxiyaa, fatahaa, fatahmaa, fidaa, fidhaa, fidiyaa, fiiqsadaa, fiiraa, fiiriyaa, fiirsadaa, fikiraa, firaashaa, fishaa, foodhiyaa, foorarsadaa, fooshaa, fududeeyaa, fujiyaa, fulaa, fuliyaa, furaa, fureeyaa, furmaa, furtaa, gaabiyaa, gaadaa, gaajoodaa, gaashaantaa, gabayaa, gaboobaa, gadaa, galaa, galabsadaa, garaacaa, garbasaartaa, gareeyaa, gargariiraa, gariiraa, gartaa, gataa, geeryoodaa, gefaa, geliyaa, gembiyaa, godaa, goobaa, goostaa, gooyaa, gororaa, gowracaa, gubaa, gucleeyaa, gudaa, gudbaa, guddoomaa, gugcaa, gumeeyaa, gurmadaa, guulaystaa, guuraa, guuriyaa, guursadaa, guuxaa, haadiyaa, haajiraa, habaabiyaa, habaaraa, habaasiyaa, habeeyaa, hadhsadaa, hafiyaa, hagaa, hakadaa, hakiyaa, halaagaa, halmaamaa, hamaansadaa, hanjabaa, hannaaniyaa, hareereeyaa, hareeyaa, hargabaa, harraadaa, hayaa, heenseeyaa, helaa, heshiisiiyaa, heshiiyaa, hillaacaa, hindhisaa, hj, hoggaamiyaa, holcaa, hormaraa, hubeeyaa, hubsadaa, hungoobaa, hurdaa, idlaadaa, ifaa, ifiyaa, iftiimaa, iftiimiyaa, iibsadaa, iidaystaa, ijaartaa, ilaaliyaa, ilaysiyaa, ilbaxaa, illaawaa, ilmeeyaa, isbarbardhigaa, islaamaa, islaamiyaa, istaagaa, iyaa, jaajuusaa, jabaa, jabiyaa, jaqaa, jawaabaa, jebiyaa, jeedaa, jeediyaa, jeelaa, jeestaa, jiidaa, jiidhaa, jiifaa, jiifiyaa, jiiraa, jilaa, jilcaa, jilciyaa, jileeyaa, jiraa, jirradaa, jirriqsadaa, joogaa, kaabaa, kaadiyaa, kaalmeeyaa, kaashadaa, kaawiyadeeyaa, kabtaa, kacaa, kaftamaa, kalkaalaa, kallahaa, kalluumaystaa, karbaashaa, karhaa, kariyaa, karkaraa, karkariyaa, karsadaa, kasbaa, kashifaa, kaxeeyaa, kaydsadaa, kexeeyaa, khasaaraa, khatalaa, khayaanaa, khilaafaa, khiyaaneeyaa, khudbadeeyaa, khuseeyaa, kiciyaa, kireeyaa, kobcaa, kobciyaa, koobaa, kordhaa, kordhiyaa, koriyaa, kormeeraa, korodhsadaa, kufsadaa, laadaa, laadlaadaa, laalaadiyaa, laallaadaa, laallaadiyaa, laaluushaa, laastaa, laayacaa, labaa, labanlaabaa, lalaa, laxaamadaa, layriyaa, layrsadaa, layrtaa, leexdaa, leexiyaa, leexleexdaa, leeyahay, libdhaa, liibaanaa, liicaa, liiciyaa, lisaa, looltamaa, lulaa, lumaa, luqluqdaa, maareeyaa, maaroobaa, maaweeleeyaa, macaanaayaa, madaddaashaa, madoobeeyaa, magacaabaa, maleeyaa, maqlaa, maraa, mariyaa, maroojiyaa, marsiiyaa, mayraa, meehaashaa, meelmaraa, megdiyaa, mideeyaa, miirtaa, miisaamaa, milaa, miliqsadaa, mirdhaa, moosaa, muddacaa, murmaa, mushaaxaa, musuqmaasuqaa, muuqdaa, muusoodaa, naadiyaa, naafoobaa, naawilaa, nacaa, nadiifiyaa, naqaa, naqdiyaa, naqilaa, nastaa, neefeeyaa, neefsadaa, nefisaa, nidaamiyaa, noqdaa, nuglaadaa, nuugaa, nuujiyaa, ogaadaa, ogsideeyaa, onkodaa, oodaa, oohaa, oohiyaa, oomaa, oommanoobaa, ooyaa, qaabbilaa, qaabiyaa, qaadaa, qaaliyeeyaa, qaataa, qabatimaa, qalabeeyaa, qallajiyaa, qallalaa, qallibmaa, qalloocaa, qalloociyaa, qalloocmaa, qalmaa, qancaa, qaniinaa, qariyaa, qarsadaa, qarxaa, qarxiyaa, qasaa, qasbaa, qaybiyaa, qeexaa, qiimeeyaa, qiraa, qirtaa, qiyaasaa, qoommaa, qorraxeeyaa, qorsheeyaa, qoslaa, qotomaa, qoyaa, qubaa, qubaystaa, qubeeyaa, qudhmaa, qufacaa, qulqulaa, quutaa, raacaa, raacdeeyaa, raadgoobaa, raadraacaa, raajiyaa, rabbaasaa, rabbeeyaa, rabshaa, rajeeyaa, rakibaa, reebaa, ridaa, riyaaqaa, rogaa, rumaystaa, rumeeyaa, ruxaa, ruxmaa, saadaaliyaa, saafaa, saameeyaa, saaraa, saaxiibaa, sabbikhaa, saboolaa, safraa, sahlaa, sakhraamaa, salaamaa, samatabbaxaa, samatabbixiyaa, samaysmaa, sameeyaa, samiraa, samraa, samriyaa, sanceeyaa, sarreeyaa, saxaa, saxaroodaa, saxeexaa, seexdaa, seexiyaa, shaahaa, shaandheeyaa, shakiyaa, shanqariyaa, sharciyeeyaa, sharfaa, sharxaa, sharxiyaa, sheegaa, sheexaa, shiilaa, shiileeyaa, shiraa, shiraacdaa, shitaa, shubaa, shubtaa, sibiibixdaa, siigaystaa, siiyaa, simaa, siraadaa, sitaa, sixiraa, siyaadaa, socdaa, solaa, soocaa, soohaa, soomaa, soshaa, suulaa, suuxaa, taabtaa, taajiraa, tagaa, takhasusaa, takooraa, tallaabsadaa, tallaalaa, taraa, tarjimaa, tarjumaa, tarmaa, tashadaa, tibaaxaa, tiigsadaa, tijaabiyaa, tiraa, tirtiraa, toleeyaa, toogtaa, tookhaa, toosaa, toosiyaa, tukadaa, tumaa, turjimaa, turjumaa, tusiyaa, tuujiyaa, tuuraa, udgiyaa, ugaaraa, ugaaroobaa, uraa, uriyaa, ururaa, uumaa, uureeyaa, waafajiyaa, waafaqaa, waajibaa, waalo, waayaa, waayeelaa, wadaagaa, wajihaa, wakiishaa, wallacaa, walwalaa, wanaajiyaa, waraa, waraabaa, waraabiyaa, wareegaa, wareejiyaa, wareeriyaa, wasakhoobaa, wataa, waxqabtaa, waxyeelaa, weeraraa, weheliyaa, welwelaa, welweliyaa, werweraa, weyneeyaa, wiiqaa, xaajoodaa, xaalufiyaa, xaaraa, xabaalaa, xadaa, xadidaa, xagtaa, xalaa, xalliyaa, xamaartaa, xamdiyaa, xanaaqaa, xanuunsadaa, xaqiijiyaa, xariiraa, xarriiqaa, xasilaa, xasiliyaa, xasuusiyaa, xawilaa, xeroodaa, xidhmaa, xijiyaa, xiraa, xirtaa, xoogeeyaa, xoogeystaa, xoogsadaa, xoojiyaa, xooraa, xooriyaa, xujeeyaa, xujoobaa, xukumaa, xulaa, xurmeeyaa, xusaa, xushmadeeyaa, xushmeeyaa, xusuusiyaa, xusuustaa, yaabaa, yaabiyaa, yaraadaa, yareeyaa, yeedhaa, yeelaa, yimaaddaa, yiraahdaa, yulqamaa, yumbadaa.