- Language: Tocharian B
- Alternate names: Kuchean
- Language code: txb
- Language family: Indo-European, Tocharian
- Number of speakers:
Tocharian B is one of the easternmost Indo-European languages, being spoken in ancient times in city-oases of Central Asia. It was not discovered until the turn of the 20th century, as a result of archaeological expeditions to Chinese Turkestan. Tocharian is not closely related to other branches of Indo-European. It has archaic features that suggest it separated early from Proto-Indoeuropean, probably after the Anatolian languages. In contrast to Tocharian A, Tocharian B is attested by documents of diverse nature, had a greater geographical extent, and showed dialectal and/or socio-linguistic variation, all of which implies it was a vernacular spoken language.
- person and number: The Tocharian verb distinguishes three persons (1st, 2nd, 3rd) and three numbers (singular, dual, plural). However, the dual is usually restricted to the 3rd person.
- tense: present, imperfect, preterite (derived from Proto-Indoeuropean perfect). Tocharian had no future tense, the subjunctive acting as such.
- voice: active, medio-passive.
- mood: indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative.
- derivative conjugation: causative. It may be formed by reduplication, palatalization and, particularly, by adding an specific suffix.
- non-finite forms: infinitive, verbal noun, present participle, preterite participle, gerundive I (obligation), gerundive II (possibility).
Sample verb: yam 'to go'
|AB i-||Toch A||Toch B||PIE||PIE||Greek||Latin||Sanskrit|