• Language: |Xam
  • Alternate names: |Kamka!e, |Kham-Ka-!k’e, |Xam-Ka-!k’e
  • Language code: xam
  • Language family: Tuu, !Ui
  • Number of speakers: Extinct
  • Script: Latin script

More information:


    |Xam is a southern Khoisan language which was spoken in parts of the southwest region of South Africa until its extinction some time in the early part of the 20th century.

    The |Xam Verb

    Verbs do not agree with arguments. Moods and tenses are formed by placing one or more verbal particles or auxiliaries before the verb. Occasionally also the verb takes an ending, generally when it can be translated as a participle.

    Tense, Mood, Aspect

    sinpast/perfect/pluperfect/subjunctive perfect
    kancontinuous action

    The hartebeest wanted me to take the thong away from his eye.


    child is crying

    MantisCONTdreaming-(pres. participle)child

    the Mantis was dreaming about the child.


    Negation: 'not' is expressed by )au or )auki before the main verb.

    Compound Verbs

    Two or three verbs can be strung together in a sentence, sometimes joined by one of the particles ki, ko, kau, ti, to, tau, si or by /ki `to take', sometimes without any connection.

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