• Language: Xhosa
  • Alternate names: Isixhosa, Xosa, Koosa, "Kaffer", "Kaffir", "Caffre", "Cafre", "Cauzuh"
  • Language code: xho
  • Language family: Niger-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern Bantoid, Bantu, East Bantu, Southern Bantu-Makua, Nguni-Tsonga, Nguni (S.40), Southern Ndebele-Lowland, Zulu-Xhosa
  • Number of speakers: 7214118
  • Script: Latin script

More information:


    Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. Like most Bantu languages, Xhosa is a tonal language, that is, the same sequence of consonants and vowels can have different meanings when said with a rising or falling or high or low intonation. One of the most distinctive features of the language is the prominence of click consonants; The word "Xhosa," the name of the language itself, begins with a click.

    The verb

    Verbs are complex; a system of affixes mark various grammatical relations, such as subject, object, tense, aspect, and mood. Suffixes on verbs are used to derive, for example, passive, causative, reciprocal, and prepositional verb forms. There is a system of concordial agreement in which subject nouns, object nouns optionally, and other sentence constituents must agree with the verb of the sentence in class and number. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives also agree in class and number with the noun they modify.


    aba, agwenxa, ahluka, ahlukanisa, ahlula, akha, akhama, ala, alamana, alatha, alathisa, alela, aluka, alusa, ambatha, amkela, anda, andisa, andlala, aneka, anela, aphuka, aphula, azi, azisa, ba, babaza, bala, baleka, balisa, balula, baluleka, bamba, banda, bandezela, banga, basa, baxa, beka, beleka, bengezela, betha, bethelela, bhabha, bhabhazela, bhadla, bhadula, bhaka, bhala, bhanxeka, bhanyabhanya, bhaqa, bhatala, bhatalisa, bheda, bheja, bheka, bhengeza, bhentsisa, bhexesha, bhida, bhinqa, bhitya, bhiyoza, bhoda, bhodla, bhola, bhotisa, bhoxa, bhubha, bhuca, bhuda, bhudla, bhukuqa, bhula, bhuqabhuqa, bika, bila, bilisa, biza, bola, boleka, bona, bonakala, bonda, bonga, bongoza, bonisa, bonisisa, bopha, bothoza, buka, bukeka, bukekela, bukela, bula, bulala, bulela, bulisa, bumba, buna, busisa, butha, buya, buyekeza, buyela, buyisa, buza, caca, cacela, cacisa, calula, camanga, canda, caphuka, caphula, ceba, cebisa, cela, cenga, cengceleza, chacha, chama, chana, chaphazela, chasa, chaza, cheba, chitha, chiza, chokoza, chola, chonga, chopha, chuba, chukumisa, chuma, chunuba, chwechwela, chwela, chwetheza, cika, cima, cinezela, cinga, coca, cofa, cola, cotha, cothisa, cothisisa, cukuceza, cula, cuphula, cwangcisa, dada, dala, damba, dambisa, dana, dandaphisa, danduluka, dangalisa, danisa, dela, denda, dibana, dibanisa, dilika, dilishana, diliza, dingeka, dinisa, dinwa, dla, dlala, dlalisa, dlamka, dloba, dlokova, dlula, dlwengula, dontsa, dubula, duda, dudula, duduma, dumba, dumisa, dumzela, dwelisa, dyarha, dyibha, dyobha, eba, elusa, enda, enza, enzakala, enzakalisa, enzeka, fa, faka, fana, fanela, fanisa, feketha, feza, fezekisa, fihla, fika, finyeza, fota, fowuna, fowunela, fuduka, fudumala, fudumeza, fukama, fumana, fumba, fumbatha, funa, funda, fundela, fundisa, funeka, funga, funquka, funqula, funxa, fuya, gabadela, gabha, galela, gaqa, gawula, gcada, gcagca, gcakamela, gcina, gcoba, gculela, gcuma, gcwala, gcwalisa, gcweka, gebhula, geza, gibisa, gibisela, gigitheka, gila, ginya, giya, goba, godola, goduka, godusa, gonya, goxa, gqabhuka, gqatsa, gqiba, gqibela, gqibezela, gqitha, gqithisa, gqobhoka, gqugula, gquma, gqusha, gqwesa, gqwetha, graya, grenya, grumba, gruzuka, gubungela, gudla, guga, gula, guqa, guquka, guqula, guqulela, gusha, gutyula, gwaza, gweba, gwencela, gwinta, gxabana, gxaleka, gxeka, gxotha, gxuma, hamba, hambela, hambelana, henda, hla, hlaba, hlafuna, hlakula, hlala, hlamba, hlambulula, hlangana, hlangula, hlanza, hlasela, hlawula, hlaza, hlazeka, hlaziya, hlaziyeka, hleba, hleka, hlekisa, hlela, hlinza, hlisa, hlomla, hlonela, hlonipha, hluba, hlukuhla, hluma, hlungisa, hlupha, hlupheka, hlutha, hluza, hlwabisa, hlwayela, homba, hoya, jaja, jala, jayiva, jija, jika, jikeleza, jinga, jiwula, jiya, joja, jolisa, jonga, jongana, jongeka, jongisa, jula, kama, katsa, kela, kha, khaba, khahlela, khala, khalaza, khalipha, khanda, khangela, khangeleka, khankanya, khanuka, khanya, khanyela, khapha, khasa, khathala, khathalela, khathaliseka, khathaza, khawula, khawulela, khawuleza, khazimla, khenkcisa, khenketha, khetha, khithika, khohlela, khohlisa, khokela, khola, kholiseka, kholwa, khomba, khonkotha, khonya, khonza, khotha, khuba, khubeka, khuhla, khula, khulisa, khulula, khululeka, khumbula, khumbuza, khumsha, khupha, khuphela, khuphisana, khusela, khuthala, khuthaza, khuza, khwaza, khwela, khwenca, khwezela, khwitsha, korobha, krala, krazuka, krazula, kroba, krokra, kroza, kruna, kruneka, kruquka, krwela, krwempa, lahla, lahleka, lala, lalisa, lamba, landa, landela, langaza, lawula, layisha, layita, lenga, leqa, letha, lethisa, libala, lila, lima, linda, lindela, linga, lingana, linganisa, loba, lola, londoloza, luleka, luma, lumka, lumkisa, lumla, lunga, lungisa, luphala, lusa, luza, lwa, ma, mamela, mangala, mangalisa, manya, matanisa, mba, mela, mema, mila, misa, mitha, mka, monela, mosha, mpompoza, munca, na, naba, nabisa, naka, nakekela, nambitha, nambuza, natha, ncama, ncamathela, ncamisa, ncanca, ncancisa, nceda, ncedisa, nciphisa, ncokola, ncoma, ncuma, ncwina, ndwendwela, ngcamla, ngcangcazela, ngcileza, ngcola, ngcwaba, ngcwala, ngena, ngenisa, ngqala, ngqamana, ngqamanisa, ngqengqa, ngqiba, ngqonga, ngquba, ngqusha, ngxama, ngxola, nika, nikela, nikezela, nitha, nityilika, nkcenkceshela, nkcunkca, nkqonkqoza, nqaba, nqakula, nqanda, nqena, nqetha, nqika, nqoma, nqula, nquma, nqumla, nqunqa, nqwala, nqwema, nqwena, nqwenela, ntama, ntlonta, ntshontsha, ntsonkotha, ntyiloza, ntywila, nuka, nwenwa, nxakama, nxanwa, nxiba, nxila, nxula, nyameka, nyamezela, nyanga, nyanisa, nyanzela, nyanzelisa, nyathela, nyathelisa, nyela, nyibilika, nyibilikisa, nyinyithekisa, nyuka, nyula, nyusa, nyusela, ohlwaya, oja, oma, omelela, omeleza, onaka, ondla, onela, onga, ongamela, ongeza, onqena, onwaba, opha, ophula, otha, othuka, othukulula, othusa, oyika, oyisa, ozela, pakisha, pha, phakama, phakamisa, phala, phalala, phalaza, phambana, phambuka, phanda, phanga, phangela, phapha, phatha, phawula, phazama, phazamisa, phefumla, pheka, phekezela, phela, pheleka, phelela, phemba, phendula, phepha, phetha, phikisa, phila, phinda, pholisa, phosa, phosisa, phucuka, phucula, phuhlisa, phuma, phumelela, phumeza, phumla, phunga, phupha, phuphuma, phuthuma, phuza, posa, pula, pulusha, qaba, qabaqabaza, qabula, qaja, qala, qalekisa, qamba, qaphela, qaqamba, qaqawula, qasha, qengqa, qengqeleka, qeqesha, qesha, qhabalaka, qhagamshelana, qhakaza, qhama, qhamuka, qhankqalaza, qhaqha, qhatha, qhawuka, qhawula, qhayisa, qhekeka, qhekeza, qhela, qheleka, qhina, qhobosha, qhomfa, qhosha, qhotsa, qhuba, qhubeka, qhula, qhuqha, qhwalela, qhwanyaza, qhwitha, qikelela, qina, qinisa, qiniseka, qinisekisa, qinisela, qokelela, qonda, qondisa, qoqosha, quba, qubuda, qubula, quka, qukumbela, qumba, ququzela, qwalasela, qwela, rhabula, rhala, rharhaza, rhawuzela, rhogola, rhola, rhona, rhoxisa, rhubuluza, rhweba, ripotha, sa, sabela, sala, sarha, sasaza, sayina, saza, sebenza, sebenzisa, seka, sela, senga, seza, shenxa, shenxisa, shicilela, shishina, shiya, shukuma, shukumisa, shukuxa, shumayela, shwabana, sika, sikelela, sila, sinda, sindisa, singa, singatha, sokola, sola, sombulula, sondela, songa, suka, sukela, sula, sulela, sungula, susa, suza, swela, sweleka, thabatha, thakatha, thakazelela, thamba, thambisa, thanda, thandabuza, thandaza, thandeka, thatha, thelekelela, thelekisa, themba, thembisa, thenga, thengisa, thetha, theza, thi, thimba, thimla, thingaza, thintela, thiya, thoba, thobeka, thobela, thotha, thuka, thula, thuma, thumela, thunga, thusa, thutha, thuthuza, thuthuzela, thwala, thwasa, thwesa, tofa, tolika, tsala, tsha, tshata, tshaya, tshayela, tshintsha, tshisa, tshiseka, tshitshilizela, tshixa, tsho, tshona, tshutshisa, tshweza, tsiba, tsibatsiba, tswina, twabulula, twezeka, tya, tyabula, tyala, tyanda, tyeba, tyekeza, tyela, tyelela, tyesha, tyeshela, tyhafa, tyhafisa, tyhala, tyhila, tyhoboza, tyhola, tyhutyha, tyibilika, tyisa, tyumba, tyumza, tywina, va, vakala, vala, valela, vavanya, vela, velisa, veza, vika, vimba, vingca, visisa, vota, votela, vuka, vula, vuma, vumela, vuna, vunda, vusa, vuselela, vutha, vuthulula, vuthuza, vuthwa, vuya, vuza, wa, wahla, wela, wina, wisa, wola, xabana, xabela, xabisa, xabiseka, xaka, xakeka, xaxa, xela, xelegwisa, xelela, xhabha, xhala, xhamla, xhapha, xhaphaza, xhasa, xhela, xhentsa, xhola, xhoma, xhomekeka, xhuma, xhumaxhuma, xhutha, xhuzula, xhwaleka, xhwila, xhwitha, xinga, xobula, xoka, xola, xova, xoxa, xoza, xuba, xubha, xukuxa, xwaya, ya, yala, yaleza, yeka, yelenqa, yola, yolisa, za, zabalaza, zala, zama, zamisa, zamla, zekelela, zela, zingela, zoba, zola, zolisa, zuma, zungula, zuza.