• Language: Avestan
  • Alternate names: Pazend, Avesta
  • Language code: ave
  • Language family: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Northeastern
  • Number of speakers: Extinct
  • Script:


Avestan is a Eastern Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. Iranian languages are part of the Indo-Iranian Language group. The Indo-Iranian language group is a branch of the Indo-European language family.

Despite this modern linguistic classification of Avestan language, the determination of the geographical location of Avestan language is however by no means complete. Although modern scholars are increasingly pointing to eastern Iran as the origins of the Avestan language, there is evidence of an Avestan homeland in north-western Iran.

Avestan Verb

Primary active endings

Singular Dual Plural
1st -mi -vahi -mahi
2nd -hi -tha -tha
3rd -ti -tō / -thō -ngti

Sample verb: 'to be'

Present Imperative
Sg.1 ahmī -
Sg.2 ahī zdī
Sg.3 astī astū
Pl.1 mahī -
Pl.2 stā -
Pl.3 həṇtī hə̄ṇtū

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