Old Spanish


  • Language: Old Spanish
  • Alternate names:
  • Language code: xspa
  • Language family: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian
  • Number of speakers: Extinct
  • Script: Latin script


Old Spanish is the predecessor of Modern Spanish. The "first written Spanish" is traditionally considered to have appeared in the Glosas Emilianenses (~ A.D. 978). Old Spanish period continued until approximately the fifteenth century.

The verb

Conjugation groups

Old Spanish verbs are divided in regular and irregular verbs. The vast majority of the verbs are regular. All the verbs are also divided in conjugation groups according to the ending in the infinitive.

Sample verb (1st conjugation): cantar

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Imperative
Present Imperfect Preterite Future Pluperfect Present Imperfect Future
Sg.1 canto cantava canté cantar (h)e / cantaré cantara cante cantas(se) cantaro / cantar(e) cantar (h)ía / cantaría -
Sg.2 cantas cantavas cantast(e) / cantest(e) cantar (h)as / cantarás cantaras cantes cantasses cantares cantar (h)ías / cantarías / cantaríes canta!
Sg.3 canta cantava cantó cantar (h)a / cantará cantara cante cantas(se) cantar(e) cantar (h)ía / cantaría / cantarie -
Pl.1 cantamos cantávamos cantamos / cantemos cantar (h)emos / cantaremos cantáramos cantemos cantássemos cantáremos cantar (h)íamos / cantaríamos / cantariemos -
Pl.2 cantades cantábades cantastes / cantestes cantar (h)edes / cantaredes cantárades cantedes cantássedes cantár(e)des cantar (h)íades / cantaríades / cantariedes cantad!
Pl.3 cantan cantavan cantaron cantar (h)an / cantarán cantaran canten cantassen cantaren cantar (h)ían / cantarían / cantarien -