Old Norse

Conjugate Verbs


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    Germanic languages AD 900
    Red: Old West Norse, light-red: Old East Norse, blue: Gothic, green: other Germanic languages

    Old Norse was the North Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. It evolved from the older Proto-Norse, in the 8th century and evolved into the modern North Germanic languages after the Viking Age.

    Old Norse dialects

    Most speakers of Old Norse dialects spoke the Old East Norse dialect in what are present-date Denmark and Sweden. In texts which date from Medieval Icelandic time, writers wrote with Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian dialects. These dialects derive from the Old West Norse dialect.

    The Old Norse verb

    Verbs were conjugated in person and number, in present and past tense, in indicative, imperative and subjunctive mood.

    Verbs are divided into strong verbs and weak verbs. Strong verbs form the past tense with a vowel shift and weak verbs with a -ða/-da suffix.

    Sample verb: kalla

    Weak verb, class I, characteristic vowel a

    Present Preterite Present Preterite
    Sg.1 kalla kallaða kalla kallaða -
    Sg.2 kallar kallaðir kallir kallaðir kalla!
    Sg.3 kallar kallaði kalli kallaði -
    Pl.1 kǫllum kǫlluðum kallim kallaðim -
    Pl.2 kallið kǫlluðuð kallið kallaðið -
    Pl.3 kalla kǫlluðu kalli kallaði -
    Conjugate Old Norse verbs

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