Celtic languages today

The term "Insular" refers to the place of origin of these languages, namely the British Isles, in contrast to the (now extinct) Continental Celtic languages of mainland Europe and Anatolia. There is a theory that the Brythonic and Goidelic languages evolved together in those islands, having a common ancestor more recent than any shared with the Continental Celtic languages such as Celtiberian, Gaulish, Galatian and Lepontic, among others, all of which are long extinct.

The Insular Celtic group consists of the modern Celtic languages, which are generally further subdivided into

The verb

The table below shows a reconstruction of indicative present verb endings.

C.f. also Old Irish verb inflection.

Number Present
Absolute Conjunct
Sg.1 -āiōs -āiō
Sg.1 -ā[mi]s -ā[mi]
Sg.2 -āieis -āiei
Sg.3 -ā[ti]s -āie
rel. -ā[s]so
Pl.1 -āiomos[i]s -āiomos
rel. -āiomoses
Pl.2 -āieteses -āietes
Pl.3 -āiontes -āiont[o]
rel. -āionteso

Insular Celtic languages

Insular Celtic Languages Sorted Alphabetically