• Language: Liv
  • Alternate names: Livonian, Līvõ kēļ, Lívõnkél
  • Language code: liv
  • Language family: Uralic, Finnic
  • Number of speakers: 15-20
  • Script: Latin script


Liv is a moribund language now spoken by some 35 people, of whom only 10 are fluent. It is closely related to Estonian. The native land of the Livonian people is Livonia, located in Latvia, north of the Kurzeme peninsula.

The alphabet

The Livonian alphabet is a hybrid which mixes Latvian and Estonian orthography.

A/a, Ā/ā, Ä/ä, Ǟ/ǟ, B/b, D/d, Ḑ/ḑ, E/e, Ē/ē, F/f, G/g, H/h, I/i, Ī/ī, J/j, K/k, L/l, Ļ/ļ, M/m, N/n, Ņ/ņ, O/o, Ō/ō, Ȯ/ȯ, Ȱ/ȱ, Õ/õ, Ȭ/ȭ, P/p, R/r, Ŗ/ŗ, S/s, Š/š, T/t, Ț/ț, U/u, Ū/ū, V/v, Z/z, Ž/ž

The Verb

Sample verb: mōļtõ 'to paint'

Affirmative Negative
Sg.1 mōļtõb äb mōļt
Sg.2 mōļtõd äd mōļt
Sg.3 mōļtõb äb mōļt
Pl.1 mōļtõm äb mōļtõm
Pl.2 mōļtõt ät mōļtõt
Pl.3 mōļtõbõd äb mōļtõt