- Language: German
- Alternate names: Deutsch, Tedesco
- Language code: deu
- Language family: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German
- Number of speakers: 95392978
- Script: Latin script
German Language Periods
- Old High German is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 500 to 1050 CE.
- Middle High German is the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350.
- Modern German is the language spoken today.
The German language is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. German is closely related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. Around the world, German is spoken by ~100 million native speakers and also ~30 million non-native speakers, and Standard German is widely taught in schools and universities in Europe.
Standard German verbs inflect into:
- one of two conjugation classes, weak and strong (like English).
- three persons: 1st, 2nd, 3rd.
- two numbers: singular and plural
- three moods: Indicative, Subjunctive, Imperative
- two genera verbus: active and passive; the passive being composed and dividable into static and dynamic.
- two non-composed tenses (Present, Preterite) and four composed tenses (Perfect, Pluperfect, Future I, Future II)
The German Spelling Reform in 1999 had the following impact on the verbs:
- Many verbs formerly compound are now separate
- 'ß' is replaced by 'ss' after short vowels.
|Traditional German||Revised German|
|ich esse, du ißt, er/sie/es ißt||ich esse, du isst, er/sie/es isst|
|ich aß, du aßest, er/sie/es aß||ich aß, du aßest, er/sie/es aß|
Verbix German verb conjugation supports both ways of spelling the verbs.
- Briod & Stadler. Les Verbes Allemands conjugués. Payot. Lausanne, 1998.
- Engelien. Grammatik der neuhochdeutschen Sprache. Verlag von Wilhelm Schultze. Berlin, 1892.
- Esterle. 8000 verbes allemands. Hatier. Paris, 1997.
- Griesbach et al. 4000 deutsche Verben. Max Hueber Verlag. Donauwörth, 1991.
- Helbig -- Buscha. Deutsche Grammatik. Leipzig, 1986.
- Bescherelle Allemand les verbes. Librairie Hatier. Paris, 2008.